. The theory of difference equations, the methods used in their solutions and their wide applications have advanced beyond their adolescent stage to occupy a central position in Applicable Analysis. In fact, in the last five years, the proliferation of the subject is witnessed by hundreds of research articles and several monographs, two International Conferences and numerous Special Sessions, and a new Journal as well as several special issues of existing journals, all devoted to the theme of Difference Equations. Now even those experts who believe in the universality of differential equations are discovering the sometimes striking divergence between the continuous and the discrete. There is no doubt that the theory of difference equations will continue to play an important role in mathematics as a whole. In 1992, the first author published a monograph on the subject entitled Difference Equations and Inequalities. This book was an in-depth survey of the field up to the year of publication. Since then, the subject has grown to such an extent that it is now quite impossible for a similar survey, even to cover just the results obtained in the last four years, to be written. In the present monograph, we have collected some of the results which we have obtained in the last few years, as well as some yet unpublished ones.