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NP-Active Pearls are a unique and natural way to control nitrate and phosphate in all aquaria. A pure, 100% natural bio-polymer with no fillers made in the USA NP-Active Pearls act as both a carbon source and medium for beneficial bacteria. As the bacteria consume the NP-Pearls they remove nitrate and phosphate from the water, out-competing algae, resulting in better water quality and a healthier aquarium environment. In short, NP-Active Pearls offer a natural, easy way to remove nutrients from the culture water that would otherwise be available to stimulate algae growth or be discharged to the environment. NP-Active Pearls were developed to offer several advantages over other types of bio-plastics – they are pure with no fillers or chemicals, are specifically designed for use in aquatic culture systems and are tested for use in aquatic systems. How to use: The recommend amount of NP-Active Pearls is 1/4 cup per 20 gallons of aquarium water (3ml per gal). When first using NP-Active Pearls, we suggest starting with 1/3 dose or 1 ml per gal (1/4 cup per 60 gal) and over a few weeks increasing the amount of NP-Active Pearls in your system. The rate at which additional NP-Active Pearls need to be added varies for each aquarium due to factors such as feeding amount, fish load etc. Generally, it is best to replenish (not replace) your pearls every 6 to 9 months. NP-Pearls active pearls never need to be replaced unless your reactor shuts-off and the pearls turn black and produce an offensive odor. NP-Active Pearls are best used in a reactor or similar device where the pearls are kept in constant motion. It important to maintain sufficient water flow as the bacteria do consume oxygen. We do not recommend putting them in a bag and just laying the bag in the system. If clogging occurs clean the reactors and rinse the pearls before re-starting your reactor system.