Within the ever-changing global map of migrations, Southern Europe has come to occupy a pivotal place: formerly a region of mass emigration overseas and to Northern Europe; now, since the 1980s, a region of mass immigration. The migrants come from many source areas - North and Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, Latin America and Eastern Europe. As Europe struggles to control immigration from the developing world, the EU's southern flank is perceived as the weak link of `Fortress Europe'. With a balanced and detailed coverage of the situation in Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece, this book examines the many facets of Southern Europe's new status as a region of large-scale immigration. Amongst the topics covered are the diverse roles played by immigrants in Southern European labour markets; issues of social and spatial exclusion; migration and gender relations; the generally slow evolution of policies of control, management and integration of immigrants; and the wider strategic concerns of security, trade and geopolitics.