The planning, integration, coordination, and application (PICA) of airpower between the Army and the Air Force is influenced by many factors. Three of the most influential factors under the control of American leaders are the following: command relationships; targeting; and interaction through training, education, and exchange tours. Command relationships are defined by the structure of command and the personal interaction between commanders. The Army and Air Force's targeting philosophy is based on history, culture and priorities. Mutual understanding through increased interaction is the most viable method for the services to arrive at optimal airpower PICA. This thesis makes twelve recommendations for more effective airpower PICA: 1) avoid dual and triple-hatting commanders, 2) erect simple command structures, 3) co-locate ground and air commanders, 4) align Army and Air Force combat training center (CTC) and deployment schedules, 5) increase air and liaison support to CTCs, 6) expand the Leadership Training Program, 7) add close air support as a CTC joint objective, 8) integrate the Air Support Operations Center (ASOC) into CTCs, 9) employ full-spectrum liaising, 10) fill current liaison positions and study future requirements, 11) institute an expanded cadet exchange, and 12) institute an expanded officer exchange during intermediate and senior level professional military education. These 12 recommendations will greatly assist airpower PICA "when the balloon goes up."