Mineral trioxide aggregate, or MTA, is a new biocompatible material introduced by Mohmoud Taorabinejad with numerous exciting clinical applications in endodontics. It has been used on an experimental basis by endodontists for several years with reported success, some of it is quite impressive. Mineral trioxide aggregate was originally used for the purpose of root end filling. Over time, its clinical applications have expanded to vital pulp therapy including pulpotomy, apexification, and surgical and non surgical perforation repair. It is the first restorative material that consistently allows for the overgrowth of cementum, and it may facilitate the regeneration of the periodontal ligament. This books provides a review on composition and properties of this novel material along with detailed description of its various clinical applications in restorative dentistry.