Advances in microbial ecology are sometimes driven by new techniques. Over the past two decades, methods to analyzing soil microbial communities have changed dramatically. Many new methods and approaches are developed and now available, allowing our soil scientists to access to the uncultivated soil microorganisms and allowing for better assessments of soil microbial diversity. This book demonstrates the applications of some molecular biological methods in the studies of soil microbial communities, including soil microbial DNA extraction and purification, PCR amplification using 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes, TGGE, SSCP, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. It shows the technical problems and solutions often faced by investigators in soil microbial ecology. It also gives two successful case studies of forest soils in subtropical Australia. This book is an essential reference for postgraduate students, soil scientists, microbial ecologists and forest managers."