When a person is convicted of a crime what should be done? Should the criminal experience the full wrath of the law (retribution) or be written off as a victim of circumstance, powerless against his/her own biological or psychological tendencies (rehabilitation), or should we focus on the prevention of crime (deterrence) and not the criminal? Because we live in a democracy, whatever policy is employed is done in our name. Do we have a moral and ethical obligation to examine and justify our views on this matter? Most of the current books in the field address these issues as mere value choices of the moment, simply presenting the pros and cons for each policy. But this is akin to allowing civilians to wander through an intellectual mine field without benefit of a map or guidelines. Penology, Justice and Liberty attempts to understand how we have arrived at these "solutions" to our problem of living with one another. It explores the philosophical and historical bases underlying current policies. It is not exhaustive, but hopefully will encourage further study and reflection.