The frrst attempts to use physical methods in agriculture can be found in nineteenth century as a necessary component of farm and food machinery. There were mechanics, electricity and physical chemistry that were the first physical disciplines used in agriculture and food industry. In the same time period the studies on physical properties of soils started to be one of main topics of soil science. The twentieth century was a century of research on physical properties of agromaterials. The physical properties of agromaterials have been studied e. g. in the USA, where a big role has been played by ASAE (1907), and in the Soviet Union where the special Institute of Agrophysics was founded (1932) by Academician Ioffe. The ASAE's activity was enlarged in 1960s and 1970s, especially with the role playing by the Mohsenin's group and its followers. At that time the Institute of Agrophysics of Polish Academy of Sciences was founded in Lublin and conferences on physical methods in agriculture began to be organised. The participants of the last conference - "Physical Methods in Agriculture - Approach to Precision and Quality," held on August 27-30, 2001, have prepared the basis for this book. Part of the conference participants decided to enlarge their conference papers to be more general and more instructive in relation to further development of the science. New papers prepared under this deciSion were reviewed, discussed and revised, repeatedly, to be presented in this book.