Scottish physiologist John Scott Haldane (1860-1936) helped find out how to determine the regulation of breathing and discovered the "Haldane effect" in haemaglobin. At that time his discoveries revolutionized current ideas about respiration. Haldane was also the inventor of the gas-mask during World War I. Between 1907 and 1913 he gave lectures in Physiology at Oxford. Beside honorary degrees from many universities, John Scott Haldane was elected Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1897. His philosophical ideas were mainly developed in the last two decades of his life and published in books like "The Sciences and Philosophy" and "The Philosophical Basis of Biology." Haldane was the founder of "The Journal of Hygiene."