This book will be of value to all disciplines of science concerned with the influence of the environment on biological systems. With the revolution in microprocessors, 'intelligent' instruments can be constructed that control the operation and collect, validate and store the data. A review of the present technology and its applications for the immediate future is overdue. The text is aimed at two levels: first, to introduce the student to the science of environmental measurement, its importance in biological systems and the various techniques available; second, as a reference book to allow the research worker to assess the relative merits of each device. An important feature is the inclusion of detailed information on the accuracy, precision and calibration of each technique, which will assist in the selection of appropriate instruments and point to any practical problems that may be encountered. Obvious users of this book will be environmental biologists, plant and animal physiologists, and ecologists, although it will also be of value to mycologists, entomologists, zoologists, soil scientists and agricultural engineers at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate level.