Importance of the Research Work Study of species composition of sandflies and their seasonal variation may provide the correct time for vector control. Through the research work, it has been found that Natural Selection has kept the population of P.papatasi higher in comparison to P.argentipes. Its importance lies in the fact that P.papatasi is more anthropophillous than P.argentipes, but under certain circumstances (eg. During epidemic) P.argentipes also becomes anthropophilic and then both compete for the same resource. P.papatasi being more dominant controls the population of P.argentipes. Otherwise kala-azar would have been a daily phenomenon. The molecular -immunological tools used today are quick, sensitive and specific to detect the Vectorial capabilities of different vectors These tools may provide the data of endemicity of any disease including Kala-azar in a short period of time. Future of vector control lies in the use of molecular tools"