This is the second, amended and enlarged edition of a familiar standard work, first published in 1958. Like its predecessor, it describes the open conflicts of the Reformation from Luther's first challenge to the uneasy peace of the 1560s. Reforming movements in all the principal countries are discussed against the background of constitutional development and the political struggles of the ruling dynasties. Europe's relations with the outside world are given due prominence. The second edition incorporates the results of some thirty years of further research and fills some of the gaps, especially in the history of central Europe, which beset the first edition. All chapters that remain from 1958 have been revised, some very substantially, while other contributions are wholly new. The only other volume of The New Cambridge History planned to appear in a second edition is Volume I: The Renaissance scheduled for 1991.